October 5, 2016
By David Keith and Gernot Wagner
“What then if the world were to reduce aerosol pollution in the lower atmosphere while deliberately injecting sufficient aerosol into the upper atmosphere to keep global temperatures in check? The former would very clearly save lives.”
“To date, there is no US government program, likely because of fears that mere talk of solar geoengineering lets polluters off the hook.”
Geoengineering = POLLUTION
Inferences from the isotopic composition of water vapor
David Keith. 2000. “Stratosphere-troposphere exchange: Inferences from the isotopic composition of water vapor.” Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 105: 15167-15174. Publisher’s Version
Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Abstract. Air may cross the tropical tropopause either by gradual ascent or in localized epi- sodes associated with convection. While observations demonstrate that water vapor mixing ratios of air entering the tropical stratosphere are consistent with the mean tropical tro- popause temperature, they do not resolve key mechanistic questions, such as the relative contribution of gradual or episodic transport, or the role of thin cirrus. As Moyer et al.  clearly argue, observations of the isotopic content of water entering the tropical stratosphere can provide a strong constraint on models of water vapor transport across the tropopause. For example, stratospheric HDO is too abundant to be compatible with the assumption that all moisture enters the stratosphere as vapor during convection. Analysis of recent H218O obser- vations shows that kinetic effects cannot explain the HDO excess. Lofting and evaporation of cloud ice can explain the observed stratospheric water vapor content and its isotopic compo- sition, but the relative importance of gradual or episodic transport remains unresolved.